Active Directory Domain Controllers and certificate auto-enrollment (2022)

Auto-enrollment is a useful feature of Active Directory Certificate Services (AD CS). It allows the administrator to configure subjects to automatically enroll for certificates, retrieve issued certificates, and renew expiring certificates without requiring subject interaction. The subject does not need to be aware of any certificate operations, unless you configure the certificate template to interact with the subject. A subject in this case can be either a user account or a machine account. (And just a reminder; certificate auto-enrollment is only possible with version 2 certificate templates and these are only available with a Windows Server 2003 Enterprise based Certificate Authority or newer, and a domain with the Windows Server 2003 schema or newer.)

Auto-enrollment is configured through Group Policy and can be set for both types of subjects; users and computers. The location in a GPO is:

  • Computer: Computer ConfigurationWindows SettingsSecurity SettingsPublic Key PoliciesCertificate Service Client – Auto-enrollment
  • User: User ConfigurationWindows SettingsSecurity SettingsPublic Key PoliciesCertificate Service Client – Auto-enrollment

The dialog box is identical and looks like this when enabled:

Active Directory Domain Controllers and certificate auto-enrollment (1)

Just for reference, here is how this dialog looked in Windows XP/Windows Server 2003:

Active Directory Domain Controllers and certificate auto-enrollment (2)
Back then it was located under User/Computer ConfigurationWindows SettingsSecurity SettingsPublic Key PoliciesAutoenrollment Settings.

While in the computer part of the GPO you will also notice another setting which deals with auto-enrollment:

Computer ConfigurationWindows SettingsSecurity SettingsPublic Key PoliciesAutomatic Certificate Request Settings

This settings configures which types of certificates a computer should automatically enroll for; Computer, Domain Controller, Enrollment Agent (Computer) or IPSec. This setting has no value by default, instead you have to complete a short wizard to add a value to it by right-clicking and selecting New: Automatic Certificate Request. This will bring up the wizard:

Active Directory Domain Controllers and certificate auto-enrollment (3)Active Directory Domain Controllers and certificate auto-enrollment (4)Active Directory Domain Controllers and certificate auto-enrollment (5)

The steps above will lead to the following setting:

Active Directory Domain Controllers and certificate auto-enrollment (6)

The first setting mentioned, Certificate Service Client – Auto-enrollment, controls whether and how auto-enrollment should be performed. This setting, on the other hand, specifies which certificate template to request certificates for. In some cases the client know which templates it wants certificates from, and only needs to be told to auto-enroll. Other times you have to specify this setting as well to tell the client about the certificates templates you want it to auto-enroll based on. The Automatic Certificate Request Settings key is only available in a domain based GPO, not in local policy. For detailed information about this setting look here:

Auto-enrollment of certificates is triggered by one of these events:

  • Computer reboot and subsequent Group Policy application/refresh
  • Interactive logon and subsequent Group Policy application/refresh (Winlogon.exe calls userinit.exe that performs the auto-enrollment based on Group Policy.)
  • Group Policy refresh, either periodic or forced
  • certutil.exe –pulse command

By default there are no auto-enrollment settings configured in a Windows domain. Neither the Default Domain Policy nor the Default Domain Controllers Policy contain auto-enrollment settings so none of your computer or user accounts will automatically enroll for any certificates. There are, however, a few exceptions to this rule. One, of which, are Domain Controllers.

(Video) Create User and Computer Certificates with Auto Enrollment using Server 2019

To understand certificate auto-enrollment it helps to enable enhanced logging. By default, auto-enrollment logs errors/failures and successful enrollments in the Application Event log on the client machine.

To enable enhanced logging of auto-enrollment processes, the following registry values must be created:

User Auto-enrollment

HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftCryptographyAutoenrollment

Create a new DWORD value named AEEventLogLevel; set value to 0.

Machine Auto-enrollment

HKLMSoftwareMicrosoftCryptographyAutoenrollment

Create a new DWORD value named AEEventLogLevel, set value to 0.

Note All failures and errors are automatically logged. It is not necessary to enable the registry key to turn on failure logging.

According to TechNet: Enterprise certification authorities (CAs) use certificate templates to define the format and content of certificates, to specify which users and computers can enroll for which types of certificates, and to define the enrollment process, such as auto-enrollment, enrollment only with authorized signatures, and manual enrollment. Associated with each certificate template is a discretionary access control list (DACL) that defines which security principals have permissions to read and configure the template, as well as to enroll or auto-enroll for certificates based on the template. The certificate templates and their permissions are defined in Active Directory® Domain Services (AD DS) and are valid within the forest. If more than one enterprise CA is running in the Active Directory forest, permission changes will affect all enterprise CAs.

Read the whole text here.

Domain controllers are interested in the following certificate templates, but depending on the DCs operating system version and the CA’s OS version it depends on what they prefer:

NameDescriptionKey UsageSubject TypeApplications used for enhanced key usageApplication policies or enhanced key usage
Domain ControllerUsed by domain controllers as all-purpose certificates and is superseded by two separate templates: Domain Controller Authentication and Directory E-mail ReplicationSignature and encryptionDirEmailRepClient authentication
Server authentication
4.1
Domain Controller AuthenticationUsed to authenticate Active Directory computers and usersSignature and encryptionComputerClient authentication
Server authentication
Smart card logon
110.0
Directory E-mail ReplicationUsed to replicate e-mail within AD DSSignature and encryptionDirEmailRepDirectory service e-mail replication115.0
Kerberos AuthenticationNew in Windows Server 2008, this template is similar to the Domain Controller Authentication template and offers enhanced security capabilities for Windows Server 2008 domain controllers authenticating Active Directory users and computersSignature and encryptionComputerClient authentication
Server authentication
Smart card logon
KDC authentication
110.0

The Kerberos Authentication template deserves special mention. Again, from TechNet:

Kerberos Authentication Template

The purpose of the Kerberos Authentication template is to issue certificates to domain controllers, which present the certificates to client computers during user and computer network authentication. Certificates issued via this new template contain two specific attributes. Rather than relying on the DNS name of the computer, applications can verify the following:

(Video) Active Directory Certificate Services

  • The enhanced key usage extension of the certificate contains Key Distribution Center (KDC) authentication.
  • The domain name is in the subject alternative name extension of the certificate.

By the authority of the issuing CA, these attributes prove that the computer presenting the certificate is a domain controller for the domain contained in the subject alternative name. This new template is recommended for domain controllers running Windows Server 2008. For domain controllers running Windows Server 2003, the Domain Controller Authentication template or the Kerberos Authentication template can be used.

Client computers running Windows Vista, Windows Server 2008 or later can be configured to check for the new enhanced key usage entry by enabling strong KDC validation on the following registry entry:

HKLMSYSTEMCurrentControlSetControlLsaKerberosParameterskdcvalidation

The default value of 0 disables strong KDC validation. To enable strong KDC validation, set this DWORD value to 2.

The following table shows which certificate template can be used for CAs running different versions of Windows, based on which version of Windows the domain controller is running.

Domain ControllerWindows2000 Server-based CA (version 1 only)Windows Server 2003-based CAWindows Server 2008-based CA
Windows 2000 Server (enroll for version 1 templates only)Domain ControllerDomain ControllerDomain Controller
Windows Server 2003Domain ControllerDomain Controller
or
Domain Controller Authentication
Directory E-mail Replication
Kerberos Authentication or Domain Controller Authentication
Directory E-mail Replication
Windows Server 2008Domain ControllerDomain Controller
or
Domain Controller Authentication
Directory E-mail Replication
Kerberos Authentication
Directory E-mail Replication
Windows Server 2012Domain ControllerDomain Controller
or
Domain Controller Authentication
Directory E-mail Replication
Kerberos Authentication
Directory E-mail Replication

Note

If the CA administrator has not manually assigned the Domain Controller Authentication and Directory E-mail Replication certificate templates to a Windows Server 2003–based CA or a Windows Server 2008–based CA, domain controllers running Windows Server 2003 still use the default Domain Controller certificate template. If a Windows Server 2008–based CA is available and configured to issue the Kerberos Authentication template, a domain controller running Windows Server 2003 or Windows Server 2008 will enroll for a Kerberos Authentication certificate, even if it already has a Domain Controller Authentication certificate.

The Kerberos Authentication certificate template is fully backward-compatible with the previous domain controller templates; for example, when the domain controller has a Kerberos Authentication certificate, smart card logon can be performed even with a client computer running Windows 2000 Professional.

The following table shows the default templates in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2003.

Template nameWindows 2000 ServerWindows Server 2003Windows Server 2008/2012
Directory E-mail ReplicationX
Domain ControllerXXX
Domain Controller AuthenticationX
Kerberos AuthenticationX

It depends when Domain Controllers auto-enroll for the different certificates listed in this post. All domain controllers are hard coded to automatically enroll for a certificate based on the Domain Controller template if it is available for enrollment at a certificate authority in the forest. Hard coded in this case means it is in the code, it is not configured in any local or domain based policy. This is one of the few cases where Windows will auto-enroll for a certificate without auto-enrollment being configured in Group Policy. If the Domain Controller certificate template is not available and enhanced logging for auto-enrollment is enabled you will see the following event in the Application log of a domain controller:

Event ID: 47

Message: Certificate enrollment for Local system could not enroll for a DomainController certificate. A valid certification authority cannot be found to issue this template.

Unless you configure auto-enrollment; that is that. The DC will not auto-enroll for any other certificate on its own. However, if you do enable auto-enrollment, preferably at the domain level so the settings applies to all computers/users in your domain, the behavior changes.

To enable auto-enrollment you need to configure a domain GPO like this:

Active Directory Domain Controllers and certificate auto-enrollment (7)

(Video) 04. Set Up Custom User Certificate Template with Auto Enrollment

This will enable auto-enrollment, renew, update and remove certificates and do all these for certificates based on templates.

Now since auto-enrollment is enabled, the Domain Controllers change their behavior. After a new auto-enrollment is triggered we will the the following events (in reverse order) in the Application log of enhanced logging is enabled:

Event ID: 47
Message: Certificate enrollment for Local system could not enroll for a KerberosAuthentication certificate. A valid certification authority cannot be found to issue this template.

Event ID: 47
Message: Certificate enrollment for Local system could not enroll for a DomainControllerAuthentication certificate. A valid certification authority cannot be found to issue this template.

Event ID: 47
Message: Certificate enrollment for Local system could not enroll for a DirectoryEmailReplication certificate. A valid certification authority cannot be found to issue this template.

Event ID: 57
Message: The “Microsoft Platform Crypto Provider” provider was not loaded because initialization failed.

Event ID: 56
Message: Certificate enrollment for Local system for the template DomainController was not performed because this template has been superseded.

Let’s look at these from bottom to top:

ID 56 indicates that the DC has now switched from the hard coded behavior of requesting a certificate based on the Domain Controller template. Since auto-enrollment is now enabled it knows that that certificate template has been superseded. The next events with ID 47 informs us that although the DC would now like to use the new templates, they are not available on any CA in the forest.

As we can see from a previous table in this post, all CAs have the Domain Controller template in their default template list, meaning they can all support the “legacy” hard-coded behavior of any DC to request a certificate based on that template. However, as we have seen, when auto-enrollment is enabled the DC’s preference changes to prefer templates that supersede this template. The Domain Controller E-mail Replication (v2) and Domain Controller Authentication (v2) templates both supersede the Domain Controller (v1) template, and if they are available a DC prefers those. The Kerberos Authentication certificate is even more preferred by DC and they will enroll for a certificate based on this template even if they already have a certificate based on either the Domain Controller (v1) template or the Domain Controller Authentication (v2) template. The Kerberos Authentication certificate is fully backwards compatible with the other templates and can be used for smart card logon. So lets enable the templates and see how the DC’s behavior changes.

First lets enable the legacy Domain Controller template:

On the CA: certutil.exe -SetCAtemplates +DomainController
On the DC: certutil-exe –pulse

This will change nothing since the DC is now configured for auto-enrollment as knows that the Domain Controller Template is superseded. The DC will log a warning that the Domain Controller template has been superseded and the the Domain Controller Authentication, Directory E-mail Replication and Kerberos Authentication templates are all unavailable. So let’s enable the next template; Domain Controller Authentication:

On the CA: certutil.exe -SetCAtemplates +DomainControllerAuthentication
On the DC: certutil-exe –pulse

The DC will now successfully auto-enroll for and receive a certificate based on this template. A new event will be generated in the Application log:

(Video) 03. Set Up Automatic Computer Certificate Enrollment in Windows Server 2019

Event ID: 19
Message: Certificate enrollment for Local system successfully received a DomainControllerAuthentication certificate with request ID <#> from certification authority <CA Name>.

Warnings are still generated for the Directory E-mail Replication and Kerberos Authentication template based certs. They are still unavailable.

OK, let’s enable the next template; Directory E-mail Replication:

On the CA: certutil.exe -SetCAtemplates +DirectoryEmailReplication
On the DC: certutil-exe –pulse

The DC will now successfully auto-enroll for and receive a certificate based on this template. A new event will be generated in the Application log.

Event ID: 19
Certificate enrollment for Local system successfully received a DirectoryEmailReplication certificate with request ID <#> from certification authority <CA name>.

Again, there will be warnings for the Kerberos Authentication template certificate.

Last template: Kerberos Authentication:

On the CA: certutil.exe -SetCAtemplates +KerberosAuthentication
On the DC: certutil-exe –pulse

The DC will now successfully auto-enroll for and receive a certificate based on this template, even though it already has certificates based on the Domain Controller Authentication and Directory E-mail Replication templates. A new event will be generated in the Application log:

Event ID: 19
Certificate enrollment for Local system successfully received a KerberosAuthentication certificate with request ID <#> from certification authority <CA name>.

Still, there will be a warning about the Domain Controller template being superseded. This will happen as long as enhanced logging is enabled.

Now the DC will have three certificates based on the Domain Controller Authentication, Directory E-mail Replication and Kerberos Authentication templates. And just to make this perfectly clear; the DC will request always request a certificate based on each of these three templates if they are available.

  • If your want to check the status of the certificates on your DC; run certutil.exe –DCInfo. It will enumerate all your DCs and check their certificates.
  • To reinstall the default certificate templates that come with your version of Windows Server into the Configuration NC; run certutil.exe –InstallDefaultTemplates. Note: this will not set up any CAs to issue any templates, just reinstall the template definitions into your Active Directory forest. To list your current templates from Active Directory; run certutil.exe –Templates.

Oh, and in case you are wondering, the other exception to the default “no auto-enrollment” behavior is EFS, which will always attempts to enroll for the Basic EFS template. The EFS driver generates an auto-enrollment request that Auto-enrollment tries to fulfill.

FAQs

How does certificate auto-enrollment work? ›

This one allows users to enroll for certificates with no user intervention needed (well, in most cases, that is). Long story short, Microsoft certificate auto-enrollment automates the whole process and allows certificates to be automatically renewed and updated.

How do I enable auto-enrollment certificate? ›

Go to User Configuration > Windows Settings > Security Settings > Public Key Policies and then under Object Type section in the right pane, select Certificate Services Client - Auto-Enrollment. Right-click on Certificate Services Client - Auto-Enrollment and click Properties.

Does a domain controller need a certificate? ›

To use smart cards and PIV credentials for network authentication, all domain controllers need to have domain controller authentication certificates.

How do I register a domain controller certificate? ›

Follow these steps to enroll your Domain Controller for a Computer digital ID:
  1. Click Start > Run. ...
  2. In the Open field, type MMC and click OK. ...
  3. Right-click on Entrust Computer Digital ID in the tree on the left pane and select Enroll Computer for Entrust Digital ID from the options list. ...
  4. Click Next.

What is the purpose of auto enrolling your certificates for encrypting file service? ›

Auto-enrollment automates the issuance of certificates to the Microsoft certificate store on Windows PCs and servers. Active Directory Certificate Services (ADCS) is enabled by Group Policy (GPO), which allows users and devices to enroll for certificates. In most cases, there's no user interaction required.

What is a certificate enrollment process? ›

A typical certificate enrollment process involves the requester generating a key pair (one public, and one private key), sending only the public key to a CA along with a CSR (Certificate Signing Request), and then receiving a CA-signed public key and a TLS certificate which they can then install on an endpoint.

How do I publish a certificate in Active Directory? ›

In the console tree, click the name of the certification authority (CA). On the Action menu, click Properties. On the Exit Module tab, click Configure. On the Certificate Publication tab, select the Allow certificates to be published in the Active Directory check box, and then click OK.

What is Certificate Enrollment Policy Server? ›

Certificate Enrollment Policy Service provides an ability to perform non-domain (from standalone machine and from non-Windows operating system) to enroll client certificates from Windows-based CA server. By using CEP servers, clients can utilize autoenrollment functionality without domain membership.

What is Certutil command? ›

Certutil.exe is a command-line program that is installed as part of Certificate Services. You can use Certutil.exe to dump and display certification authority (CA) configuration information, configure Certificate Services, backup and restore CA components, and verify certificates, key pairs, and certificate chains.

Where are Active Directory certificates stored? ›

When a user is issued a certificate through the Certificate Service web site, the certificate data is stored in the userCertificate attribute on the AD user's record. In addition, the subject of the issued certificate is set to the distinguished user name.

Can I install certificate Services on a domain controller? ›

Installing AD CS on a DC is not recommended because of the security risks it creates and the labor-intensive tasks when it comes time to upgrade or decommission. Instead, configure your AD CS with SecureW2's PKI and CloudRADIUS, which automate most IT tasks and strengthen network security overall.

Where is domain controller certificate? ›

The domain controller certificate must be installed in the local computer's certificate store.

What is certificate enrollment request? ›

Certificate enrollment refers to the process by which a user requests a digital certificate to use as a machine identity on a public-facing system, application, API, container or cluster.

How do I know if SSL is enabled in Active Directory? ›

Verifying that SSL is enabled on the Active Directory server
  1. Ensure that windows support tools is installed on the active directory machine. The suptools. ...
  2. Select Start | All Programs | Windows Support Tools | Command Prompt. ...
  3. From the ldp window, select Connection | Connect and supply the host name and port number (636).

How do I set up certificate Authority on Web enrollment? ›

Set Up Certification Authority Web Enrollment Support
  1. Click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Server Manager.
  2. Click Manage Roles. ...
  3. On the Select Role Services page, select the Certification Authority Web Enrollment check box.
  4. Click Add required role services, and then click Next.

How does EFS work in Windows? ›

EFS works by encrypting a file with a bulk symmetric key, also known as the File Encryption Key, or FEK. It uses a symmetric encryption algorithm because it takes less time to encrypt and decrypt large amounts of data than if an asymmetric key cipher is used.

What is the outcome when you have activated the Encrypting File System EFS )? ›

EFS uses an encryption attribute to designate files for EFS protection. When a file's encryption attribute is on, EFS stores the file as encrypted cipher text. When an authorized user opens an encrypted file in an application, EFS decrypts the file in the background and provides a plaintext copy to the application.

Is EFS encrypted by default? ›

When you create a new file system using the Amazon EFS console, encryption at rest is enabled by default.

How do I register a certificate manually? ›

To manually request this certificate only takes a couple of steps. I can open the Microsoft Management Console, as we've done previously in the course, by right-clicking on the Start menu and selecting Run, and then type in mmc. The snap-in that I want to add to this console is certificates for the user.

How do I complete a certificate request in MMC? ›

In the MMC Console, in the console tree, expand Certificates > Personal, right-click on the Certificates folder, and then, click All Tasks > Advanced Operations > Create Custom Request. In the Certificate Enrollment wizard, on the Before You Begin page, click Next.

What is SCEP based enrollment? ›

Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol (SCEP) is an open source protocol that is widely used to make digital certificate issuance at large organizations easier, more secure, and scalable. Using this protocol, SCEP servers issue a one-time password (OTP) to the user transmitted out-of-band (OOB).

Do I need to publish certificate in Active Directory? ›

EFS is problematic for file encryption because the process is very manual and honestly not very enterprise friendly. So, in short although you can publish certificates to Active Directory there is most likely no need for you to do so.

How do I install a certificate for all users? ›

Install the certificate for all users:
  1. First save the certificate in a file.
  2. Run MMC.
  3. Open the Certificate Manager (certmgr.msc in C:\Windows\System32)
  4. You will see it opens 'Certificates - Current User'
  5. In the menu, choose File, Add/Remove Snap-In.
18 Sept 2013

How do I import an SSL certificate into Active Directory? ›

Steps to install SSL certificate:
  1. Step 1: Install Active Directory Certificate Services. Log into your Active Directory Server as an administrator. ...
  2. Step 2: Obtain the server certificate. ...
  3. Step 3: Import the server certificate.

How do I remove Certutil certificate? ›

How to delete a certificate from a certificate store with Microsoft "certutil" tool? If you want to delete a certificate from a certificate store, you can use the Microsoft "certutil -delstore store_name certificate_id" command as shown in this tutorial: C:\fyicenter>\windows\system32\certutil -delstore -user my "*.

How do I use Certreq EXE? ›

Use certreq & certutil to request and approve a cert request as the same user
  1. Step 1: Create a certreq policy file. ...
  2. Step 2: Generate the certificate request. ...
  3. Step 3: Submit the certificate request. ...
  4. Step 4: Approve the certificate request. ...
  5. Step 5: Retrieve the CA response. ...
  6. Step 6: Accept the CA Response.
10 Jun 2021

How do I export root CA certificate? ›

Tips
  1. Log into the Root Certification Authority server with Administrator Account.
  2. Go to Start > Run. Enter the text Cmd and then select Enter.
  3. To export the Root Certification Authority server to a new file name ca_name.cer, type: Console Copy. certutil -ca.cert ca_name.cer.
10 May 2022

How do certificates work in Active Directory? ›

The digital certificates that AD CS provides can be used to encrypt and digitally sign electronic documents and messages. These digital certificates can be used for authentication of computer, user, or device accounts on a network. Digital certificates are used to provide: Confidentiality through encryption.

Are client certificates stored in Active Directory? ›

Client Certificate Mapping authentication using Active Directory - this method of authentication requires that the IIS 7 server is a member of an Active Directory domain, and user accounts are stored in Active Directory.

What is Active Directory certification? ›

Active Directory Certificate Services (AD CS) is a Microsoft product that performs public key infrastructure (PKI) functionality, supports personalities, and provides other security functionality in a Windows environment. It creates, approves and rejects public key endorsements for inward tasks of an association.

How do I find my LDAP certificate on a domain controller? ›

Verify an LDAPS connection
  1. Start the Active Directory Administration Tool (Ldp.exe).
  2. On the Connection menu, click Connect.
  3. Type the name of the domain controller to which you want to connect.
  4. Type 636 as the port number.
  5. Click OK. RootDSE information should print in the right pane, indicating a successful connection.
24 Sept 2021

How do I move a certificate authority to a new server running on a domain controller? ›

  1. Back up the current AD CS database and configuration. ...
  2. Back up the AD CS server registry key. ...
  3. Remove the AD CS role from the current Windows Server. ...
  4. Install the AD CS role on your new Windows Server. ...
  5. Restore the backup configuration and registry key on the new AD CS server.
12 Jul 2021

Why do I need a certificate authority? ›

They help secure the internet for both organizations and users. The main goal of a CA is to verify the authenticity and trustworthiness of a website, domain and organization so users know exactly who they're communicating with online and whether that entity can be trusted with their data.

How do I get SSL certificate for LDAP? ›

Getting Your LDAP SSL Certificate
  1. Determine Your LDAP Servers. If you already know what LDAP servers are in your environment, then you can skip to the next step. ...
  2. Using a LDAP Server, Get the SSL Certificates. ...
  3. Reference Your New SSL Cert Bundle in Your LDAP Config. ...
  4. Troubleshooting.

How does a domain controller work? ›

Domain controllers restrict access to domain resources by authenticating user identity through login credentials, and by preventing unauthorized access to those resources. Domain controllers apply security policies to requests for access to domain resources.

How do I renew my certificate with the same key? ›

In the console tree, expand the Personal store, and click Certificates. In the details pane, select the certificate that you are renewing. On the Action menu, point to All Tasks, point to Advanced Operations, and then click Renew this certificate with the same key to start the Certificate Renewal Wizard.

How do I find my certificate authority URL? ›

These web pages are located at https://<servername>/certsrv, where <servername> is the name of the server that hosts the hosts the CA Web Enrollment pages. The certsrv portion of the URL should always be in lowercase letters; otherwise, users may have trouble checking and retrieving pending certificates.

How do I create a custom certificate request? ›

Create an Offline Certificate Request. 1. From the Certificate manager console, navigate to Certificates (Local Computer) > Personal > Certificates. Right click Certificates and navigate to All tasks > Advanced options and select Create custom request.

How do I create a CSR in Microsoft Management Console or MMC? ›

Complete the following steps to create your CSR.
  1. Click Start > Run.
  2. Enter MMC and click OK. ...
  3. Select Certificates (double-click). ...
  4. Select Local Computer and click Finish.
  5. Click OK to close the Snap-ins window. ...
  6. Right click the Personal folder and select All Tasks>Advanced Operations>Create Custom Request.

Does a domain controller need a certificate? ›

To use smart cards and PIV credentials for network authentication, all domain controllers need to have domain controller authentication certificates.

Does Active Directory use TLS? ›

Because, by default, Active Directory does not use TLS, we will provide it with a certificate so it will use it. One of the interests when you have an Active Directory @home, is that you can use it as an identity provider for all your other services via the LDAP protocol.

Is LDAP enabled by default on Active Directory? ›

Currently by default LDAP traffic (without SSL/TLS) is unsigned and unencrypted making it vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks and eavesdropping. After the patch or the windows update would be applied, LDAPS must be enabled with Active Directory.

Which type of certificate authority does not require Active Directory? ›

Since Standalone CA do not require Active Directory, these features are disabled for this type of CAs.

How do I get a certificate of certificate authority? ›

Click the CA Manager tab. Click the name of the CA you want to issue from. At the bottom of the Certificate authority details page, click Request a certificate. Optional: If you want to use a certificate template, click create, select a template from the list, and click Save.

What is a basic EFS certificate? ›

Encrypting File System (EFS) encryption is based on the key pairs associated with certificates. In most managed environments, certificates are issued by a certification authority (CA) running in the domain. Users can automatically be issued a certificate by the CA without manual intervention.

How does a domain controller work? ›

Domain controllers restrict access to domain resources by authenticating user identity through login credentials, and by preventing unauthorized access to those resources. Domain controllers apply security policies to requests for access to domain resources.

Where do I get my LDAPS certificate? ›

The LDAPS certificate is located in the Local Computer's Personal certificate store (programmatically known as the computer's MY certificate store). A private key that matches the certificate is present in the Local Computer's store and is correctly associated with the certificate.

What is a DC in it? ›

Last updated June 23, 2020. A domain controller is a server that responds to authentication requests and verifies users on computer networks. Domains are a hierarchical way of organizing users and computers that work together on the same network. The domain controller keeps all of that data organized and secured.

What is secure LDAP port? ›

LDAPS uses its own distinct network port to connect clients and servers. The default port for LDAP is port 389, but LDAPS uses port 636 and establishes TLS/SSL upon connecting with a client.

What are the 5 roles of Active Directory? ›

Currently in Windows there are five FSMO roles:
  • Schema master.
  • Domain naming master.
  • RID master.
  • PDC emulator.
  • Infrastructure master.
1 Dec 2021

What is difference between Active Directory and domain controller? ›

A Domain Controller is a server on the network that centrally manages access for users, PCs and servers on the network. It does this using AD. Active Directory is a database that organises your company's users and computers.

Can you have 2 domain controllers on the same network? ›

Actually, In a larger environment, at least two domain controllers at each physical site should be DNS servers. This provides redundancy in the event that one DC goes offline unexpectedly. Note that domain-joined machines must be configured to use multiple DNS servers in order to take advantage of this.

What is the difference between LDAP and LDAPS? ›

LDAPS isn't a fundamentally different protocol: it's the same old LDAP, just packaged differently. LDAPS allows for the encryption of LDAP data (which includes user credentials) in transit during any communication with the LDAP server (like a directory bind), thereby protecting against credential theft.

Does LDAP require a certificate? ›

LDAPS Server Certificate Requirements. LDAPS requires a properly formatted X. 509 certificate on all your Windows DCs. This certificate lets a DC's LDAP service listen for and automatically accept SSL connections for both LDAP and Global Catalog (GC) traffic.

Is LDAP enabled by default on Active Directory? ›

Currently by default LDAP traffic (without SSL/TLS) is unsigned and unencrypted making it vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks and eavesdropping. After the patch or the windows update would be applied, LDAPS must be enabled with Active Directory.

How many types of domain controllers are there? ›

In their original Windows implementation, domain controllers were divided into two categories: primary domain controller and backup domain controller (DC). A primary DC is the first-line domain controller that handles user-authentication requests. Only one primary DC can be designated.

Is a domain controller a DHCP server? ›

Domain controllers do not require the DHCP Server service to operate and for higher security and server hardening, it is recommended not to install the DHCP Server role on domain controllers, but to install the DHCP Server role on member servers instead.

How many domain controllers do I need? ›

At Least Two Domain Controller – It does matter if your infrastructure is not an enterprise, you should have two Domain Controller to prevent critical failure.

What is difference between AD and LDAP? ›

AD is a directory service for Microsoft that makes important information about individuals available on a limited basis within a certain entity. Meanwhile, LDAP is a protocol not exclusive to Microsoft that allows users to query an AD and authenticate access to it.

Is LDAP UDP or TCP? ›

LDAP is an application layer protocol that uses port 389 via TCP or user datagram protocol (UDP). LDAP queries can be transmitted in cleartext and, depending upon configuration, can allow for some or all data to be queried anonymously.

What port is 389 used for? ›

Port 389 has historically been used for unencrypted connections into an LDAP server. Port 636 is used for legacy SSL connections. Port 389 is used for TLS connections; TLS establishes a non encrypted connection on port 389 that it 'upgrades' to an encrypted TLS connection as the initial connection proceeds.

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